Death’s Doll: The World’s Most Beautiful Mummy

They call her ‘Sleeping Beauty,’ the world’s most beautiful mummy. Rosalia Lombardo died from pneumonia in 1920 at the tender age of 2. Her body was embalmed by Alfredo Salafia (below), put into a glass coffin, and placed inside the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Italy. If it were not for the oxidizing amulet of the Virgin Mary resting atop her blanket, you would swear she had died a few days ago.

Very little is known about Rosalia’s life, and, until recently, even less was known about Salafia’s preservation methods.

Embalming as a means of memorializing the dead has ancient roots, dating all the way back to the Egyptians beginning in 3200 BC. During this period, embalmers removed the internal organs before rinsing the empty cavity with palm wine and filling it with natron salts. Over the next 40 days, the body would begin to dry out and mummify. The internal organs—which were washed, coated with resin and wrapped in linen strips upon removal—were either placed back into the body’s cavity at the end of this process, or stored in canopic jars.

This method is very different from the one used today, in which preserving fluids are pumped through the corpse’s vascular system. The end result is very different as well. Instead of a dried-out mummy that bears little resemblance to the living, you get a corpse that looks more or less as if it is sleeping. Vascular embalming became popular in the mid-19th century, and was largely driven by the sentimental desire to return the bodies of dead soldiers to their hometowns for burial during the American Civil War.

Embalming techniques varied greatly in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. For many years, Salafia’s formula remained a mystery. That was until Dario Piombino-Mascali at the Institute of Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano tracked down Salafia’s living relatives who had in their possession a number of the embalmer’s handwritten papers. In his notes, Salafia revealed that he injected little Rosalia with a mixture of formalin, zinc salts, alcohol, salicylic acid and glycerin. It was the latter which prevented the little girl’s body from drying out too much. It was the zinc salts which gave her corpse its rigidity and stopped her cheeks and nasal cavity from caving in.

Nearly 100 years after her death, Rosalia looks unnervingly alive. In 2009, an MRI of Rosalia’s corpse produced the first 3D image of the little girl and revealed that all her organs were perfectly intact. Moreover, in time-lapse photos, Rosalia’s eyes open and shut, showing her blue irises to be nearly undamaged by decomposition (video below). The eyelid movement is most likely caused by changes in room temperature and humidity down in the catacombs, yet it has fueled many cult beliefs that Rosalia’s spirit returns to the body.

Little “Sleeping Beauty” draws thousands of people to the Capuchin Catacombs each year. Visitors armed with cameras and iPhones each vie to get a shot of her lying in her glass coffin. But for me, Rosalia is an unsettling sight. She is a reminder of the dangers of childhood in a pre-penicillin era, and represents her family’s unwillingness to let go of her even in death.

In her defiance to decay, Rosalia Lombardo has become Death’s doll, an eternal playmate that can neither age nor disappear.

By | 2014-04-18T11:56:47+00:00 April 18th, 2014|Casebooks|33 Comments


  1. michelledevilliersart April 18, 2014 at 1:57 pm - Reply

    Reblogged this on Cadmium Diamond Dreams and commented:
    Death’s Doll

  2. Who you Gonna call? GhostLUSTERS | April 18, 2014 at 3:49 pm - Reply

    […] Of the three lectures I saw Paul give, the one which fascinated me most (blogging as I do about sex and death and any possible links) was his romp through the world of Sicilian sex ghosts at Blacks in Soho, care of my friend Dr Fitzharris’ fabulous ‘Historic Punch’ series. I can’t give too much away, since all this is Paul’s research, but for one of his wonderful new books he visited several Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Sicily which began mummifying their dead in 1599 . Initially this mummification was for the clergy only, but eventually nobles and others who could afford it would pay to be ‘embalmed’ in a rudimentary way and remain in the vaults. The procedure was basic at first as can be seen in the first three mummies below, but eventually improved enough to create “The Sleeping Beauty” Rosalia Lombardo in 1920. You can read more about her via The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice. […]

  3. nightsmusic April 18, 2014 at 4:11 pm - Reply

    That video really is rather unnerving, especially when you consider most of the mummies, as you said, are dried out husks. Bernadet Soubirous is another mummy who looks as if she’s just sleeping though she died in 1879. I don’t know that I’ve ever read that she moves in any way though.

  4. Links #198 | The Honest Courtesan April 19, 2014 at 11:01 am - Reply

    […] The world’s most perfectly embalmed cadaver. […]

  5. […] disturbing and beautiful – this story of a mummy in Italy made me very […]

  6. Ellen Losco Jakub April 22, 2014 at 4:36 pm - Reply

    Amazing how life-like she appears. Beautiful and sad and just a little creepy that her eyes open and close.

  7. […] to hit right on the head and keep young and beautiful. There is an exception to this though; “Sleeping Beauty” they call her. Sleeping Beauty is identified to be a 2 year old Rosalina Lombardo (Italy) […]

  8. […] Via thechirurgeonsapprentice […]

  9. Featured E-Magazine August 31, 2014 at 4:18 pm - Reply

    Reblogged this on Featured E-Magazine and commented:
    This is fascinating.

  10. Featured E-Magazine August 31, 2014 at 4:18 pm - Reply

    Fascinating stuff! You have a treasure trove of great stuff here, keep up the great work and research!

    • The Chirurgeon's Apprentice August 31, 2014 at 4:45 pm - Reply

      Thanks! If you’re interested, you can become a patron of my blog and get access to photos, articles and videos not posted here – plus a bunch of other stuff!

      Look forward to doing the interview!

      • Rosalia October 17, 2014 at 7:29 pm - Reply

        My name is Rosalia too I feel so sad for her.?

      • Rebecca October 17, 2014 at 7:32 pm - Reply

        I am so sorry for u Rosalia and the other Rosalia u must feel. So sad

      • Chelsea December 27, 2014 at 4:08 am - Reply

        I read about this when I was very young; five years old to be exact. I am 30 years old and still, 25 years later, continue to be enthralled by this truly touching part of our world’s delicate history. Truly, what a treasure this is to our broad spectrum of curiosity and imagination of what is simply obtainable by trial and error. It is as though she was loved, therefore she must always be- even in an eternal slumber.

  11. Rozain Rahman September 26, 2014 at 10:04 am - Reply

    It is a most beautiful doll which i never seen before.

  12. […] Death’s Doll: The World’s Most Beautiful Mummy (88,525 hits) […]

  13. Misspigglewiggle December 8, 2014 at 7:25 pm - Reply

    Unbelievable!!!…..I’m Guessing Rosalia’s parents just couldn’t let her go……this story is sweet, sad, and scary at the same time! Besides Rosalia Lombardo may look like a 2 yr old, but she’s way over my age….I say she does deserve both titles of “Sleeping Beauty” and “The World’s Most Beautiful Mummy”…..!!!

  14. Frances December 29, 2014 at 3:05 pm - Reply

    I do believe in such things. She is a lovely girl…what a pity!

  15. Octavia January 23, 2015 at 11:11 am - Reply

    Its awesome that we can see what she looked like 100 years ago, it would be fascinating to see what she would look like now if she were still alive. in our culture we believe the dead need their privacy and should be left to rest. i personally would not want people gwarking over me for 100 years. i would also open and close my eyes.

    • Rick Thomas February 17, 2015 at 5:14 am - Reply

      I agree with you 100%.

  16. […] Wikipedia/Rosalia Lombar, The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice, Rosalia Lombardo opening her […]

  17. […] Wikipedia/Rosalia Lombar, The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice, Rosalia Lombardo opening her […]

  18. […] Wikipedia/Rosalia Lombar, The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice, Rosalia Lombardo opening her […]

  19. […] Lombar, The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice, Rosalia Lombardo opening her eyes! – Time-lapse, Sfglobe and Discovery […]

  20. […] Apprentice (2014) Death’s Doll: The Worlds Most Beautiful Mummy. [online] Available from. <; [ 19 February […]

  21. princy prakash April 20, 2015 at 5:31 pm - Reply

    Lovely gal .. feel sad for her ..

  22. amanda November 15, 2015 at 6:10 pm - Reply

    This damn story broke my heart. My baby girl is almost 2 and her name is Rosalyna. Not the same but enough to tug my heart. I totally understand these parents pain. I pray her soul isnt still there.

    • jessica mca September 2, 2016 at 10:48 pm - Reply

      You had to say the d word

  23. Kristale Anne January 12, 2016 at 12:27 pm - Reply

    She is very beautiful little angel it didn’t creep me out instead.I felt sad for her she is too young when death took her from her family. If it s only possible that she could open those lovely eyes and wake up.???

    • Frances Gaffiero January 12, 2016 at 3:41 pm - Reply

      Yes she is like a princess or snow white. She is sleeping beauty, and its a great pity she died so young :((

  24. […] Death’s Doll: The World’s Most Beautiful Mummy (163,102 hits) […]

  25. priya.url June 4, 2017 at 6:34 am - Reply

    i am feeling very sad for you Rosalia (sleeping beauty)

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